Russian Electrical Stimulation
Referred to as one of the Medium Frequency waveforms. Interferential is also
considered a Medium Frequency waveform.
Russian Stimulation is a specific type of electrical muscle stimulation utilizing a higher
carrier frequency of 2500 Hz. The higher frequency can allow for deeper muscle
penetration and a stronger and more complete muscle contraction than lower frequencies
The system is designed to stimulate motor nerves.
Not typically used in rehabilitation, but rather in strength training protocols. Produces a
more forceful muscle contraction than most electrical stimulation units.
This specific higher frequency was utilized by the Russian Olympic team in an attempt to
develop muscle mass.
Currently the waveform is being used for muscle strengthening, and reduction in muscle
spasms and edema. However, the high frequency makes this waveform more
uncomfortable for the user.
Uses a continuous or pulsed signal.
The Russian waveform generated the greatest increase in galvanic skin resistance (a
measure of the sympathetic nervous system’s response to painful stimuli) when compared
to the sine and square waveform (p>0.05) (Bennie et al, 2002)
In general, Russian waveforms utilize:
High pulse rate
Produces strong muscle contractions