Publications, Proceedings and Articles

"BiomechanicaL Basis of Rehabilitation Protocol Development and Timelines" (2016). Proceedings of the 12th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium, Florida Association of Equine Practitioners, October 15-18, 2016 San Juan, Puerto Rico discusses the sequence of exercises used in equine rehabilitation. Read the article.

"Review: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) for mobility in human spinal cord injury and in muscle spasm and atrophy rehabilitation in horses" (2016). Proceedings from the 12th Vienna International Workshop on FES discusses how the transfer of horse FES parameters to human SCI physical therapy protocols may be useful. Read the article.

"Recovery from muscle weakness by exercise and FES: lessons from Masters, active or sedentary seniors and SCI patients." (2016) New FES research from humans and horses highlights the benefits of FES training to improve muscle quality and function in aged muscle. The evidence is strong that FES use in rehabilitation centers, critical care and nursing facilities would prove beneficial. Read the article.

"Biomechanics of Injury and Healing" (2015). Conference Proceedings from the Florida Association of Equine Practitioners 11th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium in Naples, Florida discusses a few parameters of biomechanics and how these issues relate specifically to injury and healing in horses. Clinical guidelines are offered for rehabilitation protocols. Read the Article.

"Functional Electrical Stimulation for Equine Muscle Hypertonicity: Histological Changes in Mitochondrial Density and Distribution." (2015). The FES protocol used in this study produced a positive effect on mitochondrial density and distribution, which in turn may help create healthier muscle tissue that is better able to function during exercise. Read the Article.

"Functional Electrical Stimulation Gets Muscles Moving" July 2015 The Chronicle of the Horse This therapy targets everything from performance enhancement to pain management in the quine athlete. By Lindsay Berreth Read the Article

"Biology of muscle atrophy and of its recovery by FES in aging and mobility impairments: roots and by-products" (2015). The paper shows that through the evaluation of human and equine muscle biopsy data, atrophy can be reversed and FES is a good way to modify behaviors of muscle fibers. Read the Article

"Mitochondrial density and distribution by histochemical approaches distinguish muscle fiber types and support clinical improvements due to FES as a treatment of equine epaxial muscle spasms" (2015). Conference proceedings from Padua, Italy Muscle Days discusses the use of FES to reduce equine epaxial muscle spasms and the histological results in the improvement in mitochondrial density and distribution Read the Article

"Functional electrical stimulation (FES) use in horses for musculoskeletal and neuromuscular rehabilitation" (2015). Conference proceedings from Padua, Italy Muscle Days outlines the specifics of the use of FES for equine use. A discussion of the observed reduction in muscle atrophy and spasm and how these results compliment those observed in human use of FES. Read the Article

"The whole horse approach to equine physical rehabilitation: The biomechanical view "(2015). Proceedings from Equine Nutrition and Training Conference (ENUTRACO) discuss the science of equine rehabilitation focussing on the biomechanics. Read the Article.

"Functional electrical stimulation as a safe and effective treatment for equine epaxial muscle spasms: Clinical evaluations and histochemical morphometry of mitochondria in muscle biopsies" (2015). FES in horses is a safe treatment that provides clinical improvements in equine epaxial muscle spasms Read the Article

"Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for Equine Epaxial Muscle Spasms: Retrospective Study of 241 Clinical Cases" (2014) Comparative Exercise Physiology. A retrospective study of 241 clinical cases, utilizing over 1800 Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) treatments to alleviate epaxial muscle spasms, showed that almost 80% (191) of the horses had a 1-grade improvement in muscle spasms after 2 FES treatments, based on the Modified Ashworth Scale adapted to horses. In addition, 60% (142) of these horses showed a sustained improvement for a minimum of 2 months. Read the Article

"8th International Symposium on Veterinary Rehabilitation/Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine." (2014) Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University. Novel Applications of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Equine Rehabilitation. Read more...

"The Science Behind the Development of Rehabilitation Protocols (2014) Proceedings of the Florida Association of Equine Practitioners (FAEP) 10th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium in the Southeast, Hilton Head, SC. Read more...

"Applying functional electrical stimulation (FES) in the rehabilitation of muscle and tendons in horses S Schils, MS, PhD. (2013) Proceedings of Applied Equine Nutrition and Training (ENUTRACO), Bonn, Germany Read more...

"Rehabilitation Science" (2013) Proceedings of the Florida Association of Equine Practitioners (FAEP) 9th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium in the Southeast, Boca Raton, FL Read more...

"Functional Electrical Stimulation for Muscle Wasting in Equine Rehabilitation." (2012) 7th International Symposium on Veterinary Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy (ISVRPT) Proceedings. Vienna, Austria. The paper discusses the use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for the treatment of muscle wasting in horses. Case studies are outlined to show the outcome of the protocols utilizing FES. Used with permission, ISVRPT. Read more...

"Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) in Equine Rehabilitation: Initial observations." (2012) Proceedings Conference of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society, Smart Machines- Neural Evolution, Banff, AB, Canada. The use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) in equine rehabilitation for atrophy and muscle spasms is discussed. Case studies are reviewed to document the protocols utilized. Used with permission, IFESS. Read more...

"Boots on the Ground: Rehabilitation Protocols Utilized by Rehabilitation Facilities." (2012) Proceedings of the 8th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium in the Southeast, Naples, Florida, October 11-14. Interviews with 5 leading rehabilitation centers in the United States compare and contrast the differences and similarities between rehabilitation protocols for several different types of injuries and surgeries. Used with permission, FAEP. Read more...

"Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for Treatment of Muscle Spasticity and Atrophy in Horses." (2011) Proceedings of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS) Banff, AB CANADA. Case studies of the use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for treatment of muscle spasticity and atrophy in horses are discussed. Used with permission, IFESS. Read more...

"Early Mobilization for Acute and Chronic Injuries." (2011) Proceedings 7th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium in the Southeast, Amelia Island, Florida. Sept 29-Oct 2. The paper discusses the research on the benefits of early mobilization and the development of human rehabilitation protocols. General rehabilitation protocols are outlined for use in equine practice. Used with permission, FAEP. Read more...

"Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for use in Equine Medicine." (2010) Proceedings Conference on Equine Sports Medicine and Science (CESMS) Sigtuna, SWEDEN. The paper outlines the science behind the differences of electrotherapy devices and the use of appropriate electrotherapy devices in equine rehabilitation. Case study results were presented to show the reversal of muscle wasting and decreased muscle spasticity with the use of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). Used with permission, CESMS. Read more...

"Review of early mobilization of muscle, tendon, and ligament after injury in equine rehabilitation." (2010) Proceedings 56th Annual AAEP Convention, Baltimore, Dec 4-8, p 374-380. The paper outlines the research behind the currently accepted use of early mobilization in human physical therapy, and how this information may be useful in equine rehabilitation. Early mobilization options are discussed for use in clinical practice. Used with permission, AAEP.

Paper: Review of Early Mobilization of Muscle, Tendon, and Ligament After Injury in Equine Rehabilitation
Audio of talk: Audio (.mp3)
Presented at AAEP 2010; used with permission.

"How to use Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) for Rehabilitation after Stem Cell Therapy." (2010) Proceedings 6th Annual Promoting Excellence Symposium in the Southeast, Orlando, FL, Nov 4-6. The paper reviews the research on the use of electrotherapy to enhance the outcome after stem cell therapy intervention. Used with permission, FAEP. Read more...

"Rehabilitating After Injury With Mobilization" 2010 AAEP Wrap-Up THE HORSE At the 2010 American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) meeting, Dr. Sheila Schils presented a paper on the importance of early mobilization in obtaining quality rehabilitation outcomes. A review of methods to obtain early mobilization was discussed and Functional Electrical Stimulation FES was found to be applicable for early mobilization procedures in equine practice. Read more...

"Review of Electrotherapy Devices for use in Veterinary Medicine." (2009) Proceedings 55th Annual AAEP Convention, Las Vegas, Dec 5-9, p. 68-73. The paper reviews the major classes of electrotherapy devices that are used in rehabilitation. The general class of neuromuscular electrical stimulators, with the specific stimulation being Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) was shown to be the best overall class of electrotherapy devices for use in equine rehabilitation. Used with permission, AAEP.

"Electrotherapy Devices for Equine Veterinary Use" 2009 AAEP Wrap-Up THE HORSE At the 2009 American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) meeting, Dr. Sheila Schils presented a paper on the application of electrotherapy in equine practice. She discussed the major classes of electrotherapy and compared each of the systems using video of the treatments as well as oscilloscopes of the different waveforms. The best overall class of electrotherapy devices was the general category of neuromuscular stimulators, with the specific device being Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). Read more...

Paper: Review of Electrotherapy Devices for Use in Veterinary Medicine
Presented at AAEP 2009; used with permission.